15 Interesting Facts about Pakistani Currencies

When the British left South Asia in 1947, two nation-states- India and Pakistan came into being. The struggle for Pakistan was mainly founded on the demand of creating a separate state for the South Asian Muslims. M. A. Jinnah was the main figure behind this movement. It was his continuous political movement that compelled the British colonial rulers and other Indian nationalist leaders to consider his demand for a separate country. The creation of Pakistan on 14th August, 1947 marked the beginning of a new age in the history of South Asia. Since then the country has experienced several ups and downs. It had faced a crushing defeat at the hands of India in 1971 which resulted in the creation of independent Bangladesh. At present the country is facing serious threat from the growing activities of several Jihadi Islamist groups. All these have adversely affected the economy of the country. Still, the country has a rich history of coinage and currency which is, in many cases, inseparable from the monetary history of India. Here we have gathered 15 interesting facts about the monetary history of Pakistan.

  1. Pakistani currency is called Rupee. Rupee or Rupiya is the term which is used by several other South and West Asian countries for their currency. Rupiya is believed to be derived from the Sanskrit ‘roupya’, meaning silver.
  2. Until 1971, the Pakistani currency carried writings in both Urdu and Bengali. The printing of currency notes in Bengali was discontinued after the creation of Bangladesh following a bloody civil war.
  3. After the independence in 1947, Pakistan continued to use currency notes printed in India for some time. The notes bear stamps of ‘Government of Pakistan’ as symbol of their legitimacy in the Pakistani territory.
  4. The Pakistani state of Bahawalpur issued gold coins as late as 1948. In the early 1950s the currency system was made uniform throughout the country and gold and silver coins were discontinued.
  5. The first Pakistani coins were made of nickel and circulated in the market in 1948 along with the new currency notes.
  6. The first currency notes of Pakistan were of 1, 5, 10, and 100 Pakistani Rupee denominations.
  7. The first series of the notes were signed by the then Governor of State Bank of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub.
  8. The Pakistani Rupee is sub-divided into 100 sub-units which are known as Paisa. However, this decimalized currency system was introduced only in 1961.
  9. Before 1961, the Pakistani Rupee was sub-divided into 16 Annas and each Anna was further divided into 4 Pice.
  10. A currency note of 50 Pakistani Rupee denomination was first issued in 1957. It carried a portrait of M.A. Jinnah and the value of the money in two languages- Bengali and Urdu.
  11. The other note of higher denomination- the 5000 Pakistani Rupee note was first printed in xxx.
  12. The first series of coins which were issued in 1948 were of various denominations such as 1 Pice, 1/2, 1, and 2 Annas, ¼, ½, and 1 Rupee.
  13. In the subsequent years, coins of higher denomination were issued by the State Bank of Pakistan. The issue of Paisa coins was discontinued in the early 1990s.
  14. The State Bank of Pakistan issued special notes for Hajj pilgrims during 1950-1978. These notes were intended for the use of Pakistani pilgrims who visited Saudi Arabia for annual Hajj.
  15. Apart from the regular coins, State Bank of Pakistan has issued several commemorative coins for special occasions such as the issue of a special 20 Rupee coin in 2011 to mark the 150th year of the foundation of Lawrence College in Ghora Gali, Punjab.

The Coins of the Sultans of Bengal

With the inception of Muslim rule in Delhi in 1192 CE under the leadership of Muhammad bin Sam, a new era started in the socio-economic as well as political history of India. Islam was not much familiar in the Indian context before that. However, with the foundation of the Muslim political rule, Islam became a day to day reality in the life of the Indian masses. The rule of these Muslim rulers is known as the Delhi Sultanate in the history of India. Five different dynasties succeeded each other and ruled up to 1526 CE.

However, the realm of the Sultans of Delhi did not cover the whole of South Asia. Several frontier areas such as Bengal and the Deccan occasionally raised the banner of rebellion against the Sultan. In many cases, they successfully asserted their independence and remained outside the control of Delhi. One such classic example is of the independent Sultans of Bengal.

Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah established the Ilyas Shahi dynasty in Bengal in the year 1339 CE. From this year onwards, Bengal was virtually independently ruled by different local dynasties until it came under the rule of Sher Shah Suri in 1552 CE. Ilyas Shah’s own dynasty ruled uninterruptedly up to 1406 CE and then again from 1442 CE to 1481 CE. Under the rule of the Ilyas Shahi and later, the Husain Shahi dynasty, the economic condition of Bengal was quite satisfactory. And the coins of these Sultans bore the mark of prosperity of their realm.

The coins were issued in gold and silver. There are no known evidences of copper issues of the Bengal sultans. The early issues were struck in the weight standard of 170 grains but later, it was devalued to 166 grains. Lakhnauti, Satgaon, Sonargaon were some of the major mints issuing coins under the name of the Sultan of Bengal.

The coins of the Bengal Sultans are quite similar to that of the Sultans of Delhi in design and shape. They also carried similar sounding titles and epithets of the rulers. However, the edges of these coins marked their distinctness from the coins issued by the Sultans of Delhi. They are marked by double or single borders and are in the shapes of circles, squares, hexagons, xnxx, octagons, etc. The Sultans of Bengal were pious Muslims and consider themselves as the part of the universal Muslim empire under the rule of the Khalifa. This is evident from the inscriptions on their coins. The obverse of their coins proudly described their status as “yamin Khalifah Allah Nasir Amir al-Momin or the right-hand of God’s viceregent, aider of the prince of the faithful. Some of the issues described them as “Ghaus al-Islam wa al-musalmin” meaning succourer of Islam and the Muslims. Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah’s (1414-1431 CE) coins are remarkable for the introduction of the Kalima in the coins. Generally, the obverse of the coins carried the Kalima along with the issuing year and name of the issuing mint. However, Husain Shah (1493-1518 CE) dropped the Kalima to accommodate his title which was so long that it covered both the obverse and the reverse. His full title read as follows- al-sultan al-fath al-kamru wa al-kamatah wa Jajnagar wa vrisa which is indeed long! His title is also an important historical source to ascertain the limits of his rule. The title declared the Sultan’s conquest of Assam in the west and Jajnagar in Orissa in the east.

The coins of the Bengal Sultans, however, lacked artistic sophistication and calligraphic styles which is otherwise, an important aspect of the Indo-Islamic coinage.

14 Interesting Facts about the Bangladeshi Currencies

Bangladesh achieved its independence from Pakistan in the year 1971 following a bloody civil war. Before that it was known as East Pakistan. After independence, Bangladesh slowly started the process of rebuilding its economy which was in a very bad condition as a result of the civil war. With the active assistance of India, China, and several other countries, it is now one of the fastest growing economies of the South and South East Asian region. Thus, keeping in mind the importance of fast growing Bangladeshi economy we have prepared here a list of interesting facts about the currency of Bangladesh.

  1. The currency of Bangladesh is known as Taka. Taka is believed to be derived from the Sanskrit term Tangka which is an old term for silver coins used for ages in South Asia.
  2. Before the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Bengalis of East Pakistan used the Pakistani Rupee as their medium of exchange. The Pakistani Rupee was printed in both Bengali and Urdu prior to 1971 as Bengali was regarded as the national language of the Pakistan Union along with Urdu.
  3. The Bangladeshi Taka was officially introduced on March 4th 1972.
  4. The Bangladeshi Taka is further divided into 100 sub-units known as Poisha.
  5. The Bangladesh Bank is responsible for the printing of currency notes of denominations higher than 10 Taka video porno. The currency notes of smaller value such as 1, 2, and 5 Taka are printed under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Bangladesh Government.
  6. The Taka bears the portrait of the Father of Nation of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. It was largely due to Mujib’s leadership which enabled the Bengalis to wage successfully the war of liberation against Pakistani authority.
  7. The highest denomination of Bangladeshi Taka is of 1000 Taka which was introduced in 2008.
  8. Now-a-days, the currency notes of smaller denominations are becoming increasingly obsolete and replaced by the coins.
  9. The first series of coins were introduced in 1973 of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Poisha denominations.
  10. 1974 saw the introduction of a much smaller value coin of 1 Poisha whereas in 1975, a 1 Taka coin was circulated in the market. In 1994, to keep pace with the market demands, a 5 Taka coin was introduced in the market.
  11. The old 1 Taka coins were made of an alloy of copper and nickel. But the newer issues of these 1 Taka coins are made of steel. 5 Taka coins and the newly circulated 2 Taka coins of 2004 are also made of steel.
  12. The coins typically represented the natural resources of Bangladesh. Some of the coins carried the figures of Hilsa fish and Royal Bengal Tiger- two animals which are considered the pride of Bangladesh on the obverse.
  13. Similarly, the Bangladesh Bank has so far issued several commemorative currency notes to mark special occasions. For example, 2011 saw the 40th anniversary of the independence of Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Bank issued a special 40 Taka currency note on this occasion.
  14. In 2012, to commemorate the martyrdom of those who fell in the historic Language Movement of 1952 the Bangladesh Bank issued a special 60 Taka note which bears the picture of the Shaheed Minar Monument of Dhaka.

The coins of Aurangzeb Alamgir

Aurangzeb Alamgir (r. 1659-1707 CE) was the sixth Mughal emperor. He was the last of the great Mughals and one of the most controversial rulers in the history of India for his political and religious policies. The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent under the long rule of Alamgir. However, the last decades of his rule also marked the decline of the great empire. Aurangzeb’s policies were much different from the earlier Mughal emperors who followed a policy of syncretism in the religious matters. Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim to the extent of a religious bigot. This alienated him from the majority of his subjects who practiced Hinduism. Aurangzeb’s religious bigotry was reflected not only in his political and economic policies but also in his issues of coins.

Immediately after ascending to the Mughal throne after a bloody fratricidal struggle, Aurangzeb issued coins in his name. Aurangzeb ordered the Islamic Kalima to be removed from his coins because he feared that the holy words of Islam would be polluted once they pass into the hands of the infidels i.e. the Hindus. Aurangzeb issued coins in all the three major metals- gold, silver, and copper.

The obverse of the coins which were issued in his early regnal years carried the full name and the title of the Emperor- Abu-al-Zafar Muiuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Alamgir Aurangzeb Badshah Ghazi. Later issues carried an additional couplet composed by Mir Abdul Baqi Shahbai to exalt the porno position of the Emperor-

Sikka Zad dar jahan chu mehr munir,

Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir.

The meaning of the couplet is- “struck money through the world like the shining sun (or moon), Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir”. All of the mints issued the coins with the couplet throughout the reign of Alamgir. However, the mint of Akabarabad introduced the couplet relatively late, in the twenty-ninth regnal year.

The reverse of the coins carried a unique formula to mention the name of the issuing year and the name of the issuing mint. This read as follows- “Sanh julus maimanat Manus zarb” and name of the mint following. The meaning of the sentence is “struck at (the mint’s name) in the year of the accession associated with prosperity”.

There were large numbers of copper coins too. The copper coins of Alamgir were simple in design and marked by simple inscriptions. The obverse of these coins is variously marked by the following inscriptions- Fulus Badshah Alamgir, Fulus Alamgiri, Fulus Aurangzebshahi, etc. The reverse simply mentioned the name of the issuing mint.

There were numerous mints during the reign of Aurangzeb. Some of the major mints were situated at Shahjahanabad, Akbarabad, Ahmadabad, Surat, Narnol, Kabul, Lahore, and Multan. These mints issued coins in all the three metals. Some of the other mints at Allahabad, Murshidabad, Patna, Thatta, Jaunpur, Kashmir, etc. issued only gold and silver coins. Silver coins were issued exclusively from Alamgirnagar, Bankapur, Bhakkar, Gwalior, Islamnagar, Jinji, Kanji, Peshawar, Puna, Sikakul, etc. Only copper coins issuing mints were situated in Auranganagar, Udaipur, and Bairat.

The Coins of the Adil Shahi Ruler

In the mid-fourteenth century, an independent kingdom emerged under the leadership of Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah in South India. At that time, Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the reigning monarch in Delhi. Bahaman Shah took the advantage of prevailing anarchy and chaos and laid the foundations of the Bahmani Sultanate. The power of the Bahmani Sultanate began to wane during the closing years of the fifteenth century. The vacuum created by the waning of the Bahmani power was filled by five successor states in southern India. One of these successor states were the Adil Shahi state based in Bijapur.

In 1499 CE, Yusuf Adil Khan who was earlier a powerful official in the Bahmani administration took the advantage of the weakening of the Bahmani power and declared himself a Sultan in Bijapur. This event marked the beginning of the Adil Shahi rule which will last until the last quarter of the seventeenth century.

Yusuf Adil Khan was, however, not known to have issued any coin in his name. The same can be said about three of his immediate successors- Ismail I, Mallu Adil Shah, and Ibrahim I.

It was the fourth Sultan in this line- Ali I (1557-80 CE) who issued coins in his name. He issued mainly copper coins in various denominations of 60, 120, and 180 grains. These coins of Ali I carried the inscription- “Ali ibn Abi Talib” on the obverse, and “Asadallah al-ghalib” on the reverse.

The next sultan Ibrahim II’s coins bear the following inscription on the obverse- Ibrahim Abla bali meaning “Ibrahim, the strength of the weak”. The reverse of these coins bear “Ghulam Ali Murtazi”.

A later sultan, Muhammad Adil Shah (1627-1656 CE) included a Persian couplet in his issues following the style of the contemporary Mughal rulers. The couplet in Muhammad Adil Shah’s coins read as follows-

Jahan zi yeen do Muhammad giraft zinat-o-jah

Ekey Muhammad mursal duvam Muhammad Shah.

The meaning of the couplet is- the world received beauty and dignity from two Muhammads- one, Muhammad the Apostle and the other, Muhammad the king. This was apparently to exalt the position of the Sultan before the eyes of his subjects. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that the king included the couplet to express his love for Taj Jahan, his chief queen. The alternative translation, thus reads as follows- The world (Jahan) received beauty and dignity from Muhammad the Apostle and Jahan (the queen) from Muhammad the king.

Muhammad Adil Shah also issued some gold coins though they are quite rare. Majority of their coins were issued in copper. However, in the Konkan coastal area, some silver wires or silver slender rods were used as medium of exchange. These pieces of silver were known as larins. Majority of these larins bear the simple inscription “Ali Adil Shah” on the obverse video porno and “Zarb Lari Dangi san” on the reverse. They were mainly used by the Persian and Arab merchants trading in the Arabian Sea and Konkan coastal region.

The Coins of the Qutb Shahi Rulers

After the decline of the Bahmani Sultanate in the last years of the fifteenth century, five different and independent Sultanates emerged to fill the power vacuum. One of these five successor states to the Bahmani Sultanate was the Qutb Shahi state based in Golconda. Internecine struggle and war of resistance against the imperial Mughal army was a common incident in the history of all the five Deccani successor states to the Bahmani kingdom. This incessant warfare did not allow the Deccani Sultans to regularize their economy and issue more sophisticated coins. Thus, the coins of the Qutb Shahi kingdom remained low in artistic excellence and sophistication.

Sultan Quli Qutb ul Mulk, the first of the Qutb Shahi rulers, curbed a separate territory around Golconda to establish his own state in the first decades of the sixteenth century. But he never issued any coin in his name. It was his successors who started issuing coins in their names. The Qutb Shahi coins were issued in copper only. Most of the Sultans of this kingdom did not issue coins of uniform value and weight standard. Thus, a standard metrology of Qutb Shahi coins is quite difficult to suggest.

The majority of the Qutb Shahi coins were simple in design and appearance. The name of the issuing monarch was inscribed on the obverse while the reverse bears the name of the mint and the year of the issue in Hijri era. Sometime, even the year of the issue was not mentioned in the coins. The royal titles and epithets of the rulers of the Qutb Shahi kingdom were also not as elaborate as their contemporary Mughals. They simply used “Sultan” as their epithet on most of the coins. Only Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580-1612 CE) and Muhammad Qutb Shah (1612-26 CE) adopted the title of “abu-l Muzaffar” and mentioned the same in their coins.

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah issued some coins with quite a strange Persian couplet inscribed on them. It read as follows-

Paivastah be lanate-Ilahi

Tayirdah- fulus -I- Shahi.

The meaning of the couplet is- God’s curse be on him who finds fault with the Royal fulus or monetary issues. According to some numismatists and scholars, the Qutb Shahi coins were not valued much by the merchants and the ordinary masses in the markets and in the business transactions. Thus, the Sultan invoked the curse of the God to improve the material condition of his coins. These coins bear the name of the issuing monarch on the obverse and the name of the issuing mint and the issuing year on the reverse.

Abdullah Qutb Shah (1626-72 CE) and his son-in-law and successor Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (1672-86 CE) issued coins with another weird line of inscription- “Khatam bil-khair wa al-sadath”. It means, “it came to an end well and auspiciously”. Probably, these coins were issued to mark the end of some calamitous event which engulfed the whole of the kingdom.

The coins were issued from two principle mints situated in Golconda and Haidarabad. The coins issued from the Golconda mint bear the name of the place as either “MuhammadnagarGulkundah” or “Dar-ul Salatanat Golkondah”. Later, coins were also issued from the Haidarabad mint bearing the inscription “Dar-ul Saltanat Haidarabad”.

Source: nacionfarma.com

From Salt to Squirrel Pelts: Strange forms of money

In this materialistic world money is one of the most sought after things. There are very few things which money can’t buy and thus, we have seen people, through the ages, fighting bloody, gory wars or exploring unknown lands to possess more and more money. In our common parlance, money is represented by currency notes and coins- coins of precious metals which have their own material value or coins of not-so-precious metals whole value lies in their formal recognition from the governments. However, apart from these common forms, money and more generally wealth has been represented by various other forms through the ages. Some of these things are bizarre; others are so mundane that we can’t even think of them as representing wealth on the first instance. Here we have prepared a list of such things which are not well known as a form of representing wealth from various corners of the world.

Salt

Salt was one of the most sought after commodity in ancient world. In ancient times it was not as easily available as it is today. In ancient China, salt was used to pay taxes by the subjects. The Roman state occasionally pays its soldiers in salt. The Latin for salt- “salarium” is the root word of salary. Even in modern times, some nomadic groups from Ethiopia used salt as a medium of barter.

Cowry Shells

Cowry shells were extensively used in various parts of south east Asia, India, China, and eastern Africa as medium of exchange. They were collected from the sea. The Indian subcontinent experienced a demonetization process in the early medieval ages (c. 6th century CE- 11th century CE). Coins became scarce in this period and cowry shells became the main medium of exchange and business. Even in the modern age, Indian merchant community considered cowry shells as auspicious items and linked it to the Hindu goddess of wealth, Laxmi.

Arrowhead coins

These were actually small pieces of bronze cast in the shape of arrowheads. They originated as early as 7th century BCE in the northern shores of the Black Sea. With time, the artisans who produced these pieces acquired some artistic skills and this was reflected in the more sophisticated execution of the arrowhead coins. The later arrowhead coins were produced in shapes like fishes and dolphins.

Peppercorn

Peppercorn is one of the most extensively traded spices from the ancient times. At present, the trade in peppercorns accounted almost a quarter of all the spice trade around the world. Peppercorn was highly valued in ancient times. Its value was as high as gold and thus, when the Huns and the Visigoths siege Rome they demanded large quantities of peppercorn as ransom. The trade in peppercorn and other exotic spices from south east and south Asia in the early modern ages was one of the main impetuses behind the formation of large European colonial empires in these regions.

Squirrel Pelts

In medieval Russia and Finland, Squirrel pelts were considered as highly prized possession and extensively used as a medium of exchange. The mass killing of squirrels for their pelts in Russia ironically saved the Russians from the devastating effects of cannabis, the Plague epidemics which were frequent visitors in medieval and early-modern Europe.

Interesting facts about the Swedish Krona

Sweden is a Scandinavian country situated in northern Europe. It is one of those very few countries who despite being a member of the European Union did not join the Eurozone and retained its national currency- the Krona (SEK). Swedes seemed to be too proud of their Krona to adopt a shared currency with the other European countries. A majority of the Swedes rejected the proposal to adopt the Euro back in November, 2003 in a referendum. Since then, many unofficial public surveys have showed the ever decreasing number of Swedes ready to accept Euro. This is why we have prepared a list of interesting facts about (in English it means Crown).

  1. The Swedish Krona came into use in 1873 when the Swedish government entered into a monetary agreement with the governments of Norway and Denmark which is known as the Scandinavian Monetary Union. Before that the Swedish currency was known as Riksdaler. After the formation of the Union, the three member countries issued Krona currency based on the gold standard. The Union continued up to the outbreak of the World War I. After the outbreak of the Great War, the Monetary Union was dissolved but the member countries continued to use the name Krona as their currency. This Union from the 19th century showed that the Swedes were not always against a transnational currency system!
  2. The Swedish Krona is theoretically subdivided into 100 ore. But the ore ceased to exist in reality when the authority decided against their further circulation in September, 2010. Actually the cost to produce the ore coins exceeded their face value and this led the Swedish government’s decision to discontinue them.
  3. The central bank of Sweden is known as Riksbank. Riksbank is responsible for the issue of Krona notes and coins.
  4. Until 1902, gold coins were issued in Sweden. However, they failed to maintain the gold standard after that point of time and various other metals have been used so far to strike the coins such as silver, bronze, aluminum, etc.
  5. At present, coins of 1 Krona and 2, 5, and 10 Kronor are in circulation.
  6. The Kronor coins generally bear the image of the reigning Swedish monarch on the obverse and the reverse carry the value of the coins.
  7. The 5 and 10 Kronor coins are made of Nordic Gold- an alloy metal made of copper, aluminum, zinc, and tin. The other coins are made of copper-plated steel.
  8. The Swedish banknotes come in different denominations. At present, banknotes are available of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 Kronor.
  9. The various Kronor currency notes carry the images of several famous Swedish personalities over the time. This included the image of Greta Garbo on the 100 Kronor banknote and Ingmar Bergman on the 200 Kronor banknote which were issued in 2015.
  10. There is an increase in the use of e-wallet among the Swedes in the recent years. This led to a drastic downfall in the cash transactions and the circulation of banknotes and coins.

Coins of Later Mughals

The 18th century in Indian history is full of political turmoil. On the one hand, it witnessed the slow downfall of the great Mughals and the emergence of several regional powers all over the subcontinent; on the other hand it also saw the emergence of another powerful empire- the British Empire under the East India Company. The death of Aurangzeb in 1707 CE marked the starting point of the decline of the Mughal Empire. However, Mughals continued to rule nominally up to 1856 CE. They were regarded by all the regional powers as well as the Company to be the sole source of sovereignty in the whole of South Asia. Coins were still struck in their name and Friday prayers or Khutba were still read in their names in the mosques all over India. We will look at some of those 18th century Mughal coins and the various interesting facts associated with them.

Since the second decade of the 18th century, the centralized Mughal state faced increasing difficulties in resource mobilization. Their main source of income was the land revenue collected from the provinces. With the weakening of the Mughal centre, the revenue supply from the provinces became irregular. This is also evident in the later Mughal coinage.

Gold and silver coins were continued to be issued in the name of the Mughal Padshah from Delhi. But their value and number was declining.

Farrukhsiyar who ruled as the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 issued Gold Mohurs and silver rupees from both Delhi ( also known as Shahjahanabad after the great Mughal Shahjahan) and Itawa which is situated in modern Uttar Pradesh. The gold Mohurs of Farrukhsiyar weighed around 10.90 gm and recorded the name and reigning year of the Padshah on the obverse and reverse respectively. The dates were recorded in Al Hijri following the Mughal Islamic tradition.

A silver rupee of Ahmed Shah Bahadur (r. 1748-1754) was issued from Khambayat or Cambay, a port town on the western coast of India known for its considerable importance in maritime trade. This coin was issued in 1748 (1161 AH) and weighed around 11.50 gm. The style and decoration of the coin followed the usual Mughal style of inscribing the name and the regnal year of the emperor in beautiful ornamental calligraphy.

Shah jahan III (1759-60 CE) was a titular ruler but issued a silver coin from Delhi. These coins are particularly interesting for the numismatists for their strange source of silver. At that point of time, the Mughal emperor was in a difficult position facing the advancing Afghans. The Marathas from the south India marched towards Delhi to help the Mughal emperor. The Maratha general Sadashiv Rau Bhao reached Delhi to help the Emperor but he was short in cash which was essential to meet the expenses of the massive campaign against the Afghans. To solve this problem, he ordered the silver linings to be stripped off from the ceiling of the Diwan I Khaas and coins to be struck using that video porno gratis. Diwan I Khaas is a hall situated in the Red Fort, Delhi which was used by the Mughal Emperor for private audiences. Around 900,000 Rupee coins were issued using that silver.

10 interesting facts about Chilean Pes

Chile is one of the leading economic powers of South America. It is a long strip of land sandwiched between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean on the western verge of the South American continent. The territory also included some Pacific islands such as Desventuradas, Salas y Gomez, etc. The economic stability of the nation is reflected in the relative high standard of living of its citizens. And this is why we will have a look at some of the must-known facts about the Chilean currency- the Peso (CLP).

  1. The Peso was first introduced in 1817 during the last years of the Spanish colonial rule. At that time, Peso was pegged to the Spanish currency and placed on the gold standard.
  2. The Banco Central de Chile controlled the circulation of the Peso. Though the Peso is allowed to float freely in the market, the Central Bank retained some control to counter the excessive depreciation of the currency which the Central Bank exercised on some occasions.
  3. The Peso continued to be the currency of Chile up to 1960 when it was replaced by a new currency- the Escudo. However, the Peso made a comeback in 1975 and it remained as the Chilean currency till then.
  4. The Peso is theoretically subdivided into 100 centavos. In reality, however, centavo coins ceased to exist long ago. Even some low denomination Peso coins are also hard to find.
  5. Some of the coins issued in the early and mid-19th century were made of gold and silver. Increasingly these coins were replaced by coins made of more cheap metals such as copper, nickel and alloys such as cupro-nickel.
  6. Gold coins were issued as late as 1926. They were of higher denominations- 20, 50, and 100 Peso.
  7. When the escudo was introduced in 1960, the value of the old Peso was determined as 1 escudo= 1000 Peso. I escudo was further subdivided into 100 centesimos. Centesimo coins were issued in bronze and bronze-aluminum alloy. The reintroduction of Peso in September, 1975 saw the replacement of the Escudo and the value of the new Peso was determined as 1 Peso= 1000 Escudo.
  8. Chile was ruled by a military junta between 1973 and 1990. During the rule of the junta, Peso coins bear the image of a woman who is depicted as recently being freed from her chains. The coins also carry the inscription- LIBERTAD and the date of the military coup on the obverse.
  9. After the restoration of the republic in 1990, a new design was adopted with the figure of the legendary Chilean freedom fighter Bernardo O’Higgins on the obverse.
  10. In 2008, the Chilean mint issued a series of new 50 Peso coins bearing a wrong spelling of the name of their country. Instead of CHILE, it was spelt as CHIIE. In the following year, this mistake made national headlines and Gregorio Iniguez, the general manager of the mint was forced to resign. However, these coins with the wrong spelling became an instant hit among the numismatists!

Source: Breaking.com.mx