The Coins of Sher Shah Suri

Jahiruddin Babur defeated the last of the Sultans of Delhi in the Battle of Panipat I in 1526 CE and founded the rule of the Moguls in India. But their position in India was precarious owing to the strong presence of different other video porno all over India including the Rajputs and the Afghans of Bihar. Sher Shah Suri, one such warlord of Afghan descent from Bihar, proved to be the most formidable of them. He defeated Humayun, the Mogul emperor, in 1540 CE and established the rule of the Sur dynasty in Delhi. Sher Shah is regarded as one of the most talented rulers in the history of India. The impact of his administrative, economic, and military reforms were so far reaching that they were imitated even by the Moguls who restored their rule in Delhi after the untimely death of Sher Shah in 1545 CE.

Sher Shah was a petty warlord before he ascended to the throne of Delhi. But even in his limited capacity, he issued some silver and copper coins. However, they are not of much significance.

The important phase started when he occupied the throne of Delhi after defeating Humayun in several battles. Sher Shah issued coins in silver and copper. The silver coins were known as Rupiya which is still used in India as a general term for money. The copper coins in which the large numbers of transactions were made by the masses were known as Paisa. The term Paisa is also used in present day India as a term for money of lower denominations. However, issues in gold are not yet known from the reign of the Sur rulers.

The Rupiya of Sher Shah can be used as a rich source of historical facts. The obverse of these silver coins is inscribed with the Islamic Kalima- La ilah-il-illah Muhammad ur Rasool Allah (meaning There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah). The obverse also carried the name of the first four holy Khalifas- Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali. These inscriptions showed the devotion of the Sur rulers to the cause of Islam. But, by no means, they were bigots. The tolerant nature of the rule of the Sur rulers is evident from various other facts. The obverse of the coins is marked by the full name of the ruler Farid ud Dunia wa din abu al-Muzaffar Sher Shah Sultan, the pious wish “Khald Allah Mulk” (meaning may Allah perpetuate his kingdom), the name of the issuing mint and the year of issue. Some of the Rupiya coins are also marked by a Devanagari inscription which read as follows- Sri SerSahi, indicating them as issues of Sher Shah. Mints were situated all over the realm. Some of the major mints issuing Rupiya coins were Chunar, Agra, Panduah, Delhi, Bhakkar, Kanauj, and Gwalior. Besides these mints, coins were also issued from the camp mints of the Emperor. These issues carried the word- Jahanpanah instead of the name of the issuing mint. The silver coins weigh around 180 grains and became the standard weight throughout most of India and continued to be the standard under later Mughal rulers.

The copper coins or the Paisa of Sher Shah were issued from different mints such as Gwalior, Narnol, Kalpi, Delhi, Hissar, Chunar, etc. The weight standard of the copper coins was, however, not uniform. Some of the Paisa coins issued from Narnol mint weigh around 328-9 grains while the issues from Chunar weigh 304 grains. Most of the copper coins carried the following inscription on obverse- fi ahad al-amir al-hami which means “in the time of commander of the faithful, the protector of the Religion”. The reverse carried the name of the ruler, the issuing year and the name of the mint.

The Coins of Menander

Menander was a king of the Indo-Greek line who ruled in the north western India during the Mid-2nd century BCE. King Menander is the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings due to a number of reasons although the exact date of his reign and realm could not be ascertained. First and foremost among them is various stories about his patronage of Buddhism recorded in the various Buddhist religious books. One such famous book is Milindapanha which is actually a conversation between the king and the Buddhist sage Nagasena about different philosophical problems. Apart from the literary sources, Menander is also famous for his coins which are found in large numbers in various parts of northern and western India.

Menander was quite popular among his subjects as has been evidenced by the writings of several contemporary chroniclers including Plutarch. His reign saw the growing trade between India and Europe via west Asia. To facilitate trade and commerce Menander issued a large number of coins. These coins were struck in the well established Indo-Greek fashion with elaborate details. Menander was also influenced by the Indian tradition and accommodated the Indian cultural and social elements in his coins. The silver coins of Menander were known as Drachms.

The coins of Menander carried legends in both Greek and Kharosthi. The legends on his coins read the following: ‘Maharaja Tratarasa Menadrasa’. The earlier silver coins of Menander carried a portrait of goddess Athena on the obverse and the figure of an owl on the reverse.

In the later issues of Menander, the coins also carried the portrait of the king on the obverse. The reverse of these later coins carried the figure of Athena Alkidemos throwing a thunderbolt. After this, Athena Alkidemos became the royal standard emblem of several other Indo-Greek kings and rulers.

These above mentioned silver coins of Menander were very light weight. They weigh a little more than 1 gram to a little less than 2.5 gram.

Another series of Menander’s coins were struck in Attic weight standard carrying the portrait of King Menander wearing a helmet and depicting him as throwing a spear in the obverse. The reverse depicted the portrait of goddess Athena. The legend of these coins read ‘Of King Menander, the Saviour’. These coins weighed 13.03 gram each. Probably, these coins were special issues to mark some significant event during the King’s reign. But in our present state of historical knowledge it is not possible to find out the exact reasons or events for the issue of these coins.

There were also a number of bronze coins recovered of Menander. These Bronze coins were of relatively inferior value. But they are important for different reason. These bronze coins of Menander carried the images of several deities of both Greek and Indian pantheon.

The coins of Menander are a rich source of Indian socio-economic as well as political history. The number of Menander’s coins found was greater than any other Indo-Greek rulers. They have been found in widely varied geographical regions such as modern day Afghanistan, Indian state of Kashmir, Punjab, and Gujarat. Even centuries after the conclusion of Menander’s reign, his coins were in much use among the traders of Gujarat. This is evident from the narrative of the ancient text, ‘Periplus of the Erythraean Sea’ where the unknown author of the stated that coins of Menander were largely used in the trading activities in the great port of Barigaza or modern day Broach situated in the Gujarat coast by the traders hailing from different regions.

The Early Issues of Jahangir

Nuruddin Jahangir, the son of Akbar, was the fourth Mughal Emperor. Akbar died in the year 1605 CE after a long and glorious rule of almost half a century. Jahangir was the worthy successor of Akbar. His reign was also marked by prosperity and thriving economy. One the one hand, agriculture was experiencing one of the most glorious periods. On the other hand, the maritime trade and commerce with European countries was flourishing. The Portuguese, the British, and the Dutch- all were competing with each other to gain more profit from the Indian trade. The ruling Mughal elite class was the main beneficiary of this prosperous economic condition. The flourishing state of the economy is well reflected in the coins of the successive Mughal rulers from Akbar to Aurangzeb. Jahangir’s reign and his issues of coins are also testimonies of this phenomenon.

The coins issued after the sixth regnal year of Jahangir were somewhat different in appearance and thus, we will limit our discussion here to the early issues of Jahangir.

Jahangir’s formal coronation took place some months after the death of Akbar in the year 1606. Between the death of Akbar and the coronation of Jahangir, the mint of Agra continued to issue gold coins in the name of Akbar and marking his regnal year. But at the same time these coins also announced the coming of a new Emperor by inscribing the following words, “By the stamp of Emperor Akbar gold becomes bright; this gold is still brighter with the name of the king Nur, i.e., Nuruddin Jahangir”. Some of these gold coins also carry the portrait of the late Emperor Akbar. However, the silver and bronze coins of this period were issued under the name of Prince Salim, i.e., the new Emperor Jahangir’s actual name.

After the coronation ceremony, Jahangir took some major steps in reforming the Mughal monetary system. The weight of both the gold and silver coins was increased. The new weight of a gold coin became 202 grains and new silver coins weighed 212 grains. In his 4th regnal year, the weight of the coins was again increased. This time the increase was by 5 percent. However, the masses face immense problems in using these heavyweight coins in daily transactions. So, the emperor ordered the devaluation of the coins in his 6th regnal year. The devalued gold coins weighed 170 grains and silver coins 178 grains. This weight standard was maintained throughout the reign of Jahangir.

The coins of Jahangir especially the gold and silver ones are remarkable for their artistic value and sophistication besides their monetary value. Amir-ul-Umra Sharif Khan, a courtier of Jahangir, composed a couplet to be inscribed on the coins. The couplet is in Persian and the English translation read thus, “May the face of money shine with the hue of the sun and the moon. Shah Nuruddin Jahangir, the son of Akbar Badshah”. However, all the coins did not carry this inscription and some simply carry the name of the Badshah on the obverse and the Islamic Kalima on the reverse. The year of the issue was also inscribed on the coins- both in the Hijri era and the regnal year of Jahangir.

Unlike Akbar, the coins of Jahangir were issued from a fewer places. The major mints were all situated in the great Mughal cities- Agra, Delhi, Ajmer, Burhanpur, Ahmadabad, etc. These major mints issued coins of all three metals i.e. in gold, silver, and bronze. There were other smaller mints too in places such as Patna, Lahore, Thatta, Allahabad, Surat, etc. These mints issued coins in either of the three metals.

The Coins of Akbar, the Great Mogul

The Moguls started their reign in India in the year 1526 CE. Babur, the founder of the Mogul rule defeated the reigning Sultan of Delhi and established his rule. From 1526 to 1857, the Mogul emperor was the sole source of legitimate rule in the whole of South Asia. However, after Babur’s death his son Humayun faced crushing defeat at the hands of a Pathan lord, Sher Shah Suri in 1540. Humayun left India and took refuge in Persia. But his son Jalal ud-din Akbar was of extraordinary talent. After the death of Sher Shah Suri in 1545, the Pathans were in a weak position. Humayun took the advantage and returned to India. His son Akbar finally crushed the power of the Pathans and established the Mogul rule on a strong footing.

Akbar’s reign saw the all round development of India. The people of India prospered in every sphere of life. Trade and commerce flourished, arts and aesthetics attained new heights, and religious syncretism of the Moguls became the example of the day. The all round development can also be traced in the coins issued during the rule of Akbar Shah.

The monetary system of Akbar was inspired largely by the innovations of Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah Suri was an able administrator. Akbar, though from a rival house, adopted several of the administrative measures innovated by Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah first introduced Rupya. It was a silver currency weighed 178 grains. Akbar continued to issue the Rupya with his own name inscribed. Interestingly, the money is still known by the name of Rupya in India.

Akbar not only copied the measures introduced by Sher Shah, he also reflected innovation and originality. He issued coins in all the three principal metals used for coinage worldwide. The gold coin was known as Mohur. Mohurs weighed about 170 grains. It was mainly used by the traders for large business deals. It was also used by the princes of royal blood, the landlords and the regional governors for large amount of payment. Apart from the continuing usage of Rupya, Akbar also issued a different variety of silver coin known as Shahrukhi. It was of much lighter weight than the Rupya. A typical Shahrukhi weighed about 72 grains. The copper coins of Akbar Padshah were known as Dam. Dam weighed about 330 grains. The Shahrukhi and Dam were circulated in large numbers and used extensively by the common folks. The exchange rate of converting a particular variety of coin into another variety was also clearly defined.

The Akbari system of coinage is significant because of their minute details. A detailed description of the issuing year and the location of the mint were inscribed on the coins. The coins also carried the full title of the emperor. This practice was followed by all the subsequent Mogul emperors. Even the English East India Company who started their career in India as a subordinate power to the Moguls struck the coins in the name of the reigning Mogul emperor. This practice was discontinued by the English only in the year 1837 when the Moguls were in a politically debilitating state.

However, you won’t find a single coin carrying the image of any of the Mogul emperor. Moguls were known for their religious syncretism but they remained Muslim throughout the period. As is well known, idolatry is prohibited in Islam. Thus, the Moguls refrained from inscribing their image on their coins. But they compensated this with beautiful calligraphy. The Mogul coins remained as some of the most excellent examples of aesthetics and artistic excellence in Indian coinage.

Numismatics: The Study of Coin

Now-a-days most of our economic transactions are controlled by electronic technology. However, the importance of hard cash has not been diminished. Since c.700 BCE human beings are using pieces of metals in exchange of goods or services. We called these pieces of metals as coins. Coins are everywhere in our daily life even in this age of plastic money. We used them in malls, markets, restaurants, and in numerous other places. The scientific study of coins is known as Numismatics. Also the hobby of collecting various types of coins is included within the discipline of numismatics.

The term ‘numismatics’ is derived from Latin numismatis which means coin. Its earliest use in English can be traced back to 1829.

The numismatists analyzed the materials of the coins. Their study also included the identification of the source of metals used, the classification of the coins according to their shape, time period and issuing authority. Ancient coins are generally found in hoards, or sometimes as stray individual finds. The numismatists study those coins and prepare their report. These scholarly reports are of immense importance to the historians. Numismatists provided the historians with the raw data about the material condition of people of the past. The historians used those data in writing his accounts of the past. On the basis of the information supplied by the numismatists the historian can determine the chronology of a particular ruler, the extent of his rule, the material condition of the common people under his rule, the condition of trade and commerce, etc.

The numismatists used several scientific methods to study the metal content of the coins. These included the use of modern X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. The increasing use of modern technologies in the field of numismatics is greatly beneficial to obtain accurate results quickly.

The Renaissance in Europe witnessed an enthusiasm among the people to collect antiques of the Classical age. This is the same age when we met the first of the numismatists. Although there must have been earlier instances of collecting coins, they were not sufficiently documented. The famous Renaissance personality Petrarch is often credited as the first of the coin collectors during Renaissance. Guillaume Bude wrote the first authoritative text on coins in the year 1514. His book came to be known as ‘De Asse et Partibus’. Several famous royal personalities were interested in numismatics. Even the Pope Boniface VIII (1230-1303) was a collector of coins. Some of the famous modern numismatists included Charles Seltman, the British archaeologist; David Hendin, the American expert of Jewish and Biblical coins; and Guido Bruck, an Austrian numismatist specializing in late Roman period.

In modern days, both the professional scholarly activities of the scientific study of coins and  the amateurish enthusiasm of collecting coins is largely dominated by organized bodies. Most of these organizations came into being during the 19th century or early-20th century. Some of the famous organizations dealing with numismatics are The Royal Numismatic Society and The British Numismatic Society in Britain and The American Numismatic Society. The Royal Numismatic Society published a renowned scholarly journal, the Numismatic Chronicle. The American Journal of Numismatics is also a critically acclaimed scholarly journal. It was first published in 1866.

Besides these bodies almost all the governments patronized numismatics through their respective Archaeological departments. As numismatics is an integral part of the archaeological explorations, almost every archaeological department has separate sections to deal with the coins.

Numismatics is growing in its popularity worldwide. Many local societies and clubs all over the world are facilitating its growth. Certainly, the “hobby of the kings” is no more confined only within the palaces and among the royalties.

A Short History of Indian Coins

The earliest references to coins in the Indian context have been found in the Vedas. Though Vedas are primarily religious texts, they are not solely concerned about Yoga, spirituality or after-life. Rather there are numerous references to ‘nishka’ and ‘nishka-griva’ which are believed to be earliest specimens of Indian coinage.

Another breakthrough in the Indian coinage can be traced back to 6th century BCE. Several small states emerged in the northern India during this period. The trading activities grew rapidly. We came across several terms such as the nishka, karshapana, shatamana, vimshatika which were coins of different weight and value. Interestingly, the weight-system of the coins was based on the red and black seeds of a particular variety of tree called Abrus precatorius. The coins of this age were mainly made of silver and copper. They are known among the numismatists as punch-marked coins. Punch-marked coins did not show any great instance of artistic expertise.

But the coins of the next age which was circulated in India were destined to be the best examples of artistic expertise. They were issued by the Indo-Greek kings of north western India. These coins were found in large numbers in various places of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. These coins are significant because they carry detail information about the issuing monarch, the year of issue and sometimes even an image of the reigning king. Coins were mainly made of silver, copper, nickel and lead.

The reign of the Gupta dynasty is described by some historians and scholars as the ‘Golden age’ age. And this is quite evident from their coins. Numismatists have found number of gold coins of this dynasty. These coins are also rich in details of their issuing authority. The gold coins of the Guptas were known as dinaras. The writings on these coins were in Sanskrit. These coins depicted the reigning monarch in different poses.

Apart from the coins another major medium of exchange xxx in the early Indian market was the cowrie shell. Cowrie shells were used in large numbers by the ordinary masses for small scale economic transactions. It is said that the cowrie shells carried definite value in the market just as the coins.

With the fall of the Gupta dynasty in mid-6th century CE there was a marked decline in commercial activities in Northern India. This period is also significant in the history of Indian coinage because the decline of monetary system. The decline of coinage can be noted in their number, their appearance, and value.

However, the situation changed with the invasion of the Turks in 11th and 12th century CE. Vast areas of northern India came under the rule of the Sultans. Trade and commerce with West Asia was again flourishing. The various dynasties of the Delhi sultans issued silver and copper coins. The inscriptions on the coins were mainly in Perso-Arabic script. Interestingly the coins did not bear any image of the issuing monarch. The reason was the prohibition of idolatry in Islam.

Muhammad binTughlaq, one of the sultans of 14th century was famous for his monetary reforms. He circulated bronze and copper coins and token paper currency. However, his measures failed miserably as his subjects resorted to wholesome forgery of the currency notes. Ultimately he had to withdraw the currency notes.

The Great Moguls of 16th and 17th century issued coins closely resembling other Central Asian dynasties. Sher Shah, a ruler for a very short period of time in the mid-16th century was a bitter enemy of the Mughals. He is also remembered for his introduction of a kind of silver coin namely rupee. Interestingly, in India money is still known as rupiya.

The Moguls were succeeded by the East India Company’s colonial rule. The Company rule brought the monetary system of India in direct connection with the global economic system. However, the name of the Indian currency continued to be rupee under the Company rule.

Interesting facts and news about coins and numismatics

Gold and Switzerland
Even for the Egyptians 4000 years ago gold was a symbol of seignory representation. But the Egyptians considered gold also as a symbol of the sun and awarded to it healing and lifegiving power.
«Faszination Gold» is the name of the issue 2000/1 of the magazine «Kunst + Architektur» (that is «Art + Architecture») in Switzerland (www.gsk.ch). To this magazine you may refer, if you want to know how the Swiss goldwatch has become a status symbol or how rich in gold the Helvetians were. Furthermore it is the question about how the diplomatic effect of English gold was or how the French revolution distributed gold for interior decoration. As well you may read about the healing effect the alchemists accredit to the «aurum potabile», the so-called drinkable gold.

A Case for Brussels?
A report of an archaeological find in Pattensen in the county of Hanover, Germany was covered in the April edition of the magazine Archäologie in Deutschland (Archaeology in Germany): A Roman gold coin was found at a gravesite with the image of the Emperor Valentinian II of Trier (383-392 AD), dating from the time of the migration of the peoples. Because the reverse was undoubtedly struck with a circular harrow, the archaeologists could deduce that the gold coin was actually made of a silver alloy. The worthless counterfeit coin however, showed a remarkable level of forgery excellence. This coin was most probably made by a professional counterfeiter working closely with the imperial mint of Trier (France). Perhaps the Germanic soldiers in service to the Roman rulers were paid with counterfeit money.
Certainly there is no fear of the development of diplomatic tension between Rome and Berlin as a result of this Roman counterfeit money. However, the contemporary critic must pose this question: Just what will we undergo with the minting of the Euro? Brussels will need not only politicians with the gift of gab, but learned and alert technical advisors!
The Treasure Island of the Vikings
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology reports in the September/October, 2000 edition of a new archaeological find of a large hoard of silver coins on the island of Gotland, Sweden.
During the time of the Vikings (8th century AD) this largest island of the Baltic Sea was a significant trade location. Its inhabitants grew affluent over the centuries and buried their hoards in times of emergency. In 1999, archaeologists found a silver hoard weighing 70 kilograms making it the largest silver hoard found up until today. The Gotland coin hoard contains in all, 1,400,000 coins, 70,000 alone originating from Europe (England, Germany, Denmark and Sweden). The other 70,000 coins originated from the Arabian world and prove the long trade routes that the businessmen covered.
The Vikings are known for their grand metal craftwork. Silver was for them the most popular metal used for jewellery – astounding when one realizes that not even one silver mine exists in all of Scandinavia. Silver must have been imported. Acquiring silver coins in order to melt them down to create a new form must have been one of the means of getting the rare and popular metal to the north.
The northern treasure island of Gotland has relinquished many a coin and silver hoard over time. Why these hoards were buried still remains a dark secret of videos pornos.
Counterfeiters?
During the excavation of a fountain vault of the Roman city of Augusta Raurica in Augst, Switzerland, archaeologists came upon an obvious ancient crime scene. The archaeologists found the skeletons of five murdered people along with the indication of counterfeit coins. The excavators came upon the four-meter high subterranean domed room with an artesian well in 1998. The domed construction was fully excavated in 1999. Indications of a violent blow was found on one of the bones. Another surprising find for the archaeologists was the some 6000 terracotta forms in which third century coins were molded: officially authorized or a sign of criminality?
History lives on because man’s imagination is immortal.

Gold Coins and Psychology
«If you bought gold – bars or coins – you have to be able to forget the price you paid.»
This drastic quote coming from a disappointed investor indicates the amount of money invested in gold coins. After a few short upward curves for the price of an ounce of pure gold, to which the price of gold coins closely follows, the price went downwards from a yearly average in 1980 of 700 $ US to the current 280 $ US. Out of the many reasons why, the strongest is the constant threat of the selling off of gold by the central banks. Those who insist on buying gold coins must collect for their ideal worth, timeless beauty and have knowledge of its historical value. In the sense of investing, «worthless» gold coins will gain in individual value by the pure joy of collecting beauty.

Even Money has its Fate
«Banknotes and coins with a value of 16.2 million Deutsch marks have burned, been damaged, discolored or gone rotten in forgotten piggybanks in Germany last year» as reported by the Bundesverband Deutscher Banken (Federal Association of German Banks). The damaged money is certainly not automatically worthless. The Deutsche Bundesbank as a rule will replace the money fast and without cost only on the condition that the owner presents more than half of the banknote or has proof that more than half of the note had been destroyed.
Often the neighborhood bank can help by replacing a slightly damaged note when the note was, say, washed in the washing machine. However, serious damage should be brought to the attention of the state-owned Central Banks. There they have machines that verify its authenticity and worth. Qualified technicians can then further examine the notes and decide the claim.
In special cases, like when only ashes remain after a fire, they should be sent to the department of the directorate of the Central Bank in Frankfurt where thirty experts examine the remains. Through the wonders of modern technology they are often able to determine just how much money they’re dealing with and if it is genuine. Up to 20,000 times a year the Bundesbank experts are called on to help.
Clearance Sale on Current Coins
Many of the estimated 500,000 coin collectors in Germany have specialized in current coins: these are coins that are currently in circulation. Some speculate that the course will go «through the roof because this is the end». For the first time in the history of coin collecting, it’s been known four years in advance when the coins will be taken out of circulation. Other monetary standards were put through in a far shorter time period. Collectors are able to complete an incomplete series – but at the same time this pushes the price for coins of smaller editions way up. Some secretive hobby-archaeologists will probably find themselves searching solemnly through their address books for acquaintances whose piggybanks they’d be allowed to take a peek in.
However, those whose goal is collecting for speculation, will collect uncirculated coins. Almost certainly, only coins in absolute mint condition can be expected to appreciate in value. An uncirculated set (from one pfennig to the 5 mark piece) costs about 140 Deutsch marks, the polished plate twice as much. In any case, pfennigs have not been minted for circulation since 1997.

Interesting facts & discoveries about coins

Finally found: the ancient Heraklion
«Lights of history», that’s how Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, a universal savant from Zurich in the 18th century, called coins. What fingerprints are for criminal investigations, that’s what coins are for historians: a medium for identification, a way to light up unknown and clandestine things.
The information on coins is currently pivotal in a spectacular case. According to recent reports, French aquanaut Frank Goddio has found a sensational trove: the ancient Heraklion. He found this immersed town not off shore from Crete, but more in the south of the Mediterranean, near the Egypt town of Alexandria. Besides a well-preserved and lettered stele, which provides information about its habitat, there have been three broken statues. Two of them can now be identified due to comparisons with coins from the 1st millennium BC.

The Euro – just a holiday love affair?
«Nordic Gold», that’s the name of the alloy the Euro-coins are made of. A cool name for an object heating presently so many minds.
Thus, will the new money ever be loved? Scarcely in this year, as Hans Eichel – at the time Federal Chancellor of the Exchequer of Germany – said. But next year, so he continued, this will change. Then the people will hold the new bills and coins in the hand – and then the people will realize that there is no more need for changing money for a holiday in Europe.
Well, the Chancellor of Exchequer will be right on both accounts. But he forgot that it will also be possible to compare all prices throughout Europe. And then, the holiday love affair may break off in the one or the other case. As it happens so often …

It is always springtime for counterfeiters
Should you plan to travel to one of the Euro-land countries in the months ahead, make sure you take a careful look at all bills and coins you get there. First, those currencies will be redeemed shortly, and secondly, they might be counterfeits!
In fact, counterfeiters don’t need any spring. Their «flowers» always blossom. Especially now, at the time of the biggest exchange of currencies in European history! That will mean that previous counterfeits will become worthless shortly – a good reason for counterfeiters to bring their counterfeits into circulation, especially among the tourists. Which tourist knows exactly how the real bill looks like? But it’s well worth looking carefully.
A currency union is a good way to make life miserable for counterfeiters. But not even the EURO is safe from them. The individual member states are free to design the front side of any euro coin themselves. That guarantees diversity, but also cracks in the security system.
Spectacular findings on the Atlantis-myth
Atlantis was a mythical and lost city even at the times of Plato in ancient Greece. That hasn’t changed up to our days. However, the riddle seems to be solved as a result of the new, spectacular exhibition in Stuttgart, Germany. The thesis worked out by Zurich-based archaeologist Eberhard Zangger: Atlantis is nothing else than Troja at the northern border of today’s Turkey. The probably oldest city tale appears to be lifted, finally.
But is it really? Read more about it in the article «The Battle for Troja» (so far in German only) and Zangger’s home-page – it is a fight among the titans of archaeology on a subject which is thousands of years old.

Garbage money
On the first of January 2002 Euro banknotes and coins will be put into circulation. Until that time 14.5 billion Euro banknotes must be manufactured at a staggering cost of 600 billion Deutsch marks. Ten billion bills need to be exchanged for the old national banknotes.
Starting in 2002 Europeans will finally get their hands on the Euro. One years grace is given to say goodbye to old Deutsch mark and carry it to the grave. But are they really simply going to be buried in the garden? According to plan the Landeszentralbank (State Central Bank) of Munich will not just destroy of 2.8 billion notes. After all, if the notes were laid one on top of the other it would create a tower 323 kilometers high weighing 700,000 tons.
Yet, even though coins can simply be melted and the metal separated, the cotton fibers in paper money make it much more complicated to recycle.